MECHANISM OF ACTION
The xanthones, alpha- and beta-mangostins, and garcinone B
exhibit strong inhibitory effect against Mycobacterium tuberculosis in vitro (3). Alpha-mangostin has been shown to inhibit growth of human leukemia HL60 cells by inducing caspase-3-dependent apoptosis
(1) (6), reduce the synthesis of prostaglandins by inhibiting the activities of COX-1 and COX-2 enzymes (5), and prevent oxidative damage of LDL by functioning as a free-radical scavenger (7). Alpha- and gamma-mangostins also antagonize the activities of histamine and serotonin by acting as receptor blockers
(8). Garcinone E has cytotoxic effects against human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (10). In vitro studies have also demonstrated that a crude methanolic extract from the pericarp of mangosteen has antiproliferative,
antioxidative, and apoptotic effects against SKBR3 human breast cancer cells (11).
LITERATURE SUMMARY AND CRITIQUE
There is no clinical data available to support the beneficial effects
of mangosteen in humans.
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